Bloggfrslur mnaarins, oktber 2010

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Strfri snillingur bakvi DNA

g rakst grein sem fjallai um nlega rannskn sem var a reyna a svara gamalli spurningu um DNA. Til a tskra um hva mli snst, myndau r a f hendurnar skldsgu en vantai blasu bkina. San fengir a verkefni a ba til essa blasu t fr restinni af bkinni. a er akkrat etta sem fruman getur gert egar DNA skemmmist. Kona a nafni Barbara McClintock fann etta t me tilraunum korni, hn eyilagi hluta af DNA-inu en plantan gat gert vi skemmdirnar. Mrgum rum seinna fkk hn nbels verlaun fyrir etta starf hennar.

Fengi han:

Hrna er greinin:

The Mathematics of DNA

Imagine that someone gives you a mystery novel with an entire page ripped out.page_ripped_out2

And lets suppose someone else comes up with a computer program that reconstructs the missing page, by assembling sentences and paragraphs lifted from other places in the book.

Imagine that this computer program does such a beautiful job that most people cant tell the page was ever missing.

DNA does that.

In the 1940s, the eminent scientist Barbara McClintock damaged parts of the DNA in corn maize. To her amazement, the plants could reconstruct the damaged section. They did so by copying other parts of the DNA strand, then pasting them into the damaged area.

This discovery was so radical at the time, hardly anyone believed her reports. (40 years later she won the Nobel Prize for this work.)

And we still wonder: How does a tiny cell possibly know how to do. that???

A French HIV researcher and computer scientist has now found part of the answer. Hint: The instructions in DNA are not only linguistic, theyre beautifully mathematical. There is an Evolutionary Matrix that governs the structure of DNA.

Computers use something called a checksum to detect data errors. It turns out DNA uses checksums too. But DNAs checksum is not only able to detect missing data; sometimes it can even calculate whats missing. Heres how it works.

In English, the letter E appears 12.7% of the time. The letter Z appears 0.7% of the time. The other letters fall somewhere in between. So its possible to detect data errors in English just by counting letters.

In DNA, some letters also appear a lot more often (like E in English) and some much less often. But unlike English, how often each letters appears in DNA is controlled by an exact mathematical formula that is hidden within the genetic code table.

When cells replicate, they count the total number of letters in the DNA strand of the daughter cell. If the letter counts dont match certain exact ratios, the cell knows that an error has been made. So it abandons the operation and kills the new cell.

Failure of this checksum mechanism causes birth defects and cancer.

Dr. Jean-Claude Perez started counting letters in DNA. He discovered that these ratios are highly mathematical and based on Phi, the Golden Ratio 1.618. This is a very special number, sort of like Pi. Perez discovery was published in the scientific journal Interdisciplinary Sciences / Computational Life Sciences in September 2010.

Jean-Claude Perez discovered an evolutionary mathematical matrix in DNA, based on the Golden Ratio 1.618

Jean-Claude Perez discovered an evolutionary mathematical matrix in DNA, based on the Golden Ratio 1.618

Before I tell you about it, allow me to explain just a little bit about the genetic code.

DNA has four symbols, T, C, A and G. These symbols are grouped into letters made from combinations of 3 symbols, called triplets. There are 44x4=64 possible combinations.

So the genetic alphabet has 64 letters. The 64 letters are used to write the instructions that make amino acids and proteins.

Perez somehow figured out that if he arranged the letters in DNA according to a T-C-A-G table, an interesting pattern appeared when he counted the letters.

He divided the table in half as you see below. He took single stranded DNA of the human genome, which has 1 billion triplets. He counted the population of each triplet in the DNA and put the total in each slot:

When he added up the letters, the ratio of total white letters to black letters was 1:1. And this turned out to not just be roughly true. It was exactly true, to better than one part in one thousand, i.e. 1.000:1.000.

Then Perez divided the table this way:

Perez discovered that the ratio of white letters to black letters is exactly 0.690983, which is (3-Phi)/2. Phi is the number 1.618, the Golden Ratio.

He also discovered the exact same ratio, 0.690983, when he divided the table the following two alternative ways:

Again, the total number of white letters divided by the total number of black letters is 0.6909, to a precision of better than one part in 1,000.

Perez discovered two more symmetries:

tcag_symmetry5Above: Total ratio of white:black letters = 1:1
tcag_symmetry6Again, total ratio of white:black letters = 1:1

So for three ways of dividing the table, the ratio of white to black is 1.000:1.000.

And for the other three ways of dividing it, the ratio is 0.690983 or (3-Phi)/2.

When you overlay these 6 symmetries on top of each other, you get a set of mathematical stairs with 32 golden steps. Then an absolutely fascinating geometrical pattern emerges: The Dragon Curve which is well known in fractal geometry. Here it is, labeled with DNA letters in descending frequency:



Animated Dragon Curve

You can see other non-DNA, computer generated versions of this same curve here.

Other interesting facts:

  • Similar patterns with variations on these same rules are seen across a range of 20 different species. From the AIDS virus to bacteria, primates and humans
  • Each character in DNA occurs a precise number of times, and each has a twin. TTT and AAA are twins and appear the most often; theyre the DNA equivalent of the letter E.
  • This pattern creates a stair step of 32 frequencies, a specific frequency for each pair.
  • The number of triplets that begin with a T is precisely the same as the number of triplets that begin with A (to within 0.1%).
  • The number of triplets that begin with a C is precisely the same as the number of triplets that begin with G.
  • The genetic code table is fractal - the same pattern repeats itself at every level. The micro scale controls conversion of triplets to amino acids, and its in every biology book. The macro scale, newly discovered by Dr. Perez, checks the integrity of the entire organism.
  • Perez is also discovering additional patterns within the pattern.

I am only giving you the tip of the iceberg. There are other rules and layers of detail that Im omitting for simplicity. Perez presses forward with his research; more papers are in the works, and if youre able to read French, I recommend his book Codex Biogenesis and his French website. Here is an English translation.

(By the way, he found some of his most interesting data in what used to be called Junk DNA. It turns out to not be junk at all.)

OK, so what does all this mean?

  • Copying errors cannot be the source of evolutionary progress, because if that were true, eventually all the letters would be equally probable.
  • This proves that useful evolutionary mutations are not random. Instead, they are controlled by a precise Evolutionary Matrix to within 0.1%
  • When organisms exchange DNA with each other through Horizontal Gene Transfer, the end result still obeys specific mathematical patterns
  • DNA is able to re-create destroyed data by computing checksums in reverse - like calculating the missing contents of a page ripped out of a novel.

No man-made language has this kind of precise mathematical structure. DNA is a tightly woven, highly efficient language that follows extremely specific rules. Its alphabet, grammar and overall structure are ordered by a beautiful set of mathematical functions.

More interesting factoids:

The most common pair of letters (TTT and AAA) appears exactly 1/13X as often as all the letters combined - consistently, across all organisms.

If you put the 32 most common triplets in Group 1 and the 32 least common triplets in Group 2, the ratio of letters in Group1:Group2 is exactly 2:1. And since triplet counts occur in symmetrical pairs (TTT-AAA, TAT-ATA, etc), you can group them into four groups of 16.

When you put those four triplet populations on a graph, you get the peace symbol:


Does this precise set of rules and symmetries appear random or accidental to you?

My friend, this is how it is possible for DNA to be a code that is self-repairing, self-correcting, self-re-writing and self-evolving. It reveals a level of engineering and sophistication that human engineers could only dream of. Most of all, its elegant.

Cancer has sometimes been described as evolution run amok. Dr. Perez has noted interesting distortions of this matrix in cancer cells. I strongly suspect that new breakthroughs in cancer research are hidden in this matrix.

I submit to you that the most productive research that can possibly be conducted in medicine and computer science is intensive study of the DNA Evolution Matrix. Like I said, this is just the tip of the iceberg.

There is so much more here to discover!

When we develop computer languages based on DNA language, they will be capable of extreme data compression, error correction, and yes, self-evolution. Imagine: Computer programs that add features and improve with time. All by themselves.

What would that be like?

Perry Marshall

P.S.: Dr. Perez and I are friends. Perez worked on HIV research with the man who originally discovered HIV, Luc Montagnier. Perez also worked in biomathematics and Artificial Intelligence at IBM. Im familiar with this work because last spring I had the privilege of helping him translate his groundbreaking research paper about this into English.

You can read it here: Codon Populations in Single-stranded Whole Human Genome DNA Are Fractal and Fine-tuned by the Golden Ratio 1.618″

Ekki hreinar meyjar heldur hreinar rsnur?

tilraun til a gera slam meira alagandi fyrir kvenflk grpur ein kona til ess rs a lta Kraninn segja a mslmar f rsnur egar eir fara til himna. etta er borganlegt!

Vitrn hnnun?

bee.jpgVandi farandsslumannsins er klassskt raut fyrir nemendur Tlvunarfri og a vandaml sem hefur fengi einna mestu athygli meal tlvunarfringa egar kemur a leysa a sem hagkvmastan htt.

Ef a er eitthva sem vi hfum lrt af essu vandamli fr v a a var fyrst sett fram sem strfrileg raut ri 1930 er a a til ess a leysa essa raut arftu vitsmuni. essi rannskn bflugum er ess vegna mjg merkileg. etta t.d. kom fram rannskninni:

Bees can solve complex mathematical problems which keep computers busy for days, research has shown.

The insects learn to fly the shortest route between flowers discovered in random order, effectively solving the "travelling salesman problem" , said scientists at Royal Holloway, University of London.

The conundrum involves finding the shortest route that allows a travelling salesman to call at all the locations he has to visit. Computers solve the problem by comparing the length of all possible routes and choosing the one that is shortest.

Bees manage to reach the same solution using a brain the size of a grass seed.

Hrna er sem sagt um a ra heila flugu sem er rsmr a leysa strfriraut sem getur teki tlvu marga daga a leysa. Hver er besta tskringin hvernig essi heili flugunnar var til? Er a virkilega tilviljanakenndar breytingar DNA flugunnar pls nttruval? g segi af og fr. a er ekki annig sem vi bjuggum tlvur til, vi notuum okkar vitsmuni en samt er heili flugunnar enn magnari.

Fyrir mig eru ll svona dmi alvru ggn sem styja vitrna hnnun og tti a lta srhvern sannfran runarsinna efast strlega um tr sna.

city100-swapped_cities-9.png Tlvuvddar bflugur?
Tilkynna um vieigandi tengingu vi frtt

rs mannrttindarrs mannrttindi?

gideon_bible.jpgSumt samykkt mannrttindars Reykjavkurborgar er a mnu mati elilegt og ekki veri a brjta rtti eins ea neins. g veit ekki betur en nemendur muni samt geta leita til presta ef au bija um a svo ekki eru eir tilokair fr sklunum eins og einhverjir glpamenn.

En a banna Gideon flaginu a gefa Nja Testamenti og banna nemendum trarlega listskpun er a mnu mati algjrlega frleitt. Srstaklega trarleg listskpun er ekkert anna en rs mannrttindi og tjningarfrelsi einstaklinga. a virist eiga a sj til ess a guleysis trin s hin opinbera rkis tr han fr og allir sem ahyllist hana ekki vera tundan einhvern htt. a er engin spurning a ungur nemandi sem trir v sem stendur Biblunni passar engan veginn inn kerfi.

Langbest vri a sklarnir httu a einbeita sr a kenna nemendum yngri en t.d. 17 ra aal atriin til ess a geta stunda nm. Atrii eins og strfri, lestur og mannkynssgu. Auvita margt fleira en a lta frii trarleg efni. A ef a barni er gyingur, kristinn, mslimi ea hindi a s lti frii a kenna sklunum a eirra tr er rng. a var gert vi mig egar runarkenningin var kennd sem sannleikur og var mjg gileg upplifun.

g vona a t r llu essu komi einhver heilst og heilbrig niurstaa varandi tengingu skla og trarbrg. g skrifai sm um akomu trflaga a sklum hrna: Akoma trflaga a sklum Vegi a rtum trarinnar
Tilkynna um vieigandi tengingu vi frtt

Akoma trflaga a sklum

ar sem a g tilheyri ekki jkirkjunni g auvelt me a skilja afstu eirra sem vilja kirkjuna t r sklum landsins. jkirkju prestar kenna ara kristni en g ahyllist svo g s ftt gott vi afskipti eirra.

En hvernig er a, eiga sklar landsins alveg a loka snum dyrum fyrir eim trflgum sem tilheyra samflaginu?

A kynnast eim lku vihorfum sem eru a finna samflaginu er neitanlega a gefa nemendum frleik eim skounum sem eru ti samflaginu og flki samflagsins.

Bandarkjunum er mjg algengt a sj opinberar rkrur milli srfringa me lkar skoanir en slkt er vand fundi hr landi. Enda margir sem hafa bi tlndum og srstaklega Bandarkjunum upplifa slendinga sem einstrengilega v a eir hafa varla kynnst nema einu vihorf svo mrgum mlum. etta er einfaldlega vitnisburur margra sem g hef tala vi sem hafa lrt tlndum.

Lklegast er best a trflg komi sem minnst nlgt sklum landsins. En samt finnst mr ekkert nema elilegt a nemendur sem eru ornir ngu gamlir til a hugsa sjlfsttt kynnist lkum trarlegum hugmyndum fr eim sem ahyllist r. Kannski hgt a hafa einn dag ri ar sem fyrirlesarar fr lkum trarhpum tskra snar hugmyndir?

Ffri eykur aeins fordma og ffri tr flks leiir til skilningsleysis v sem er gangi heiminum. Segja vegi a faglegum heiri kennara
Tilkynna um vieigandi tengingu vi frtt

The greatest hoax on earth?

greatesthoax.jpgNjasta bk Richard Dawkins ber titilinn "The greatest show on earth". eirri bk er takmark Dawkins a sna hvaa ggn styja runarkenninguna. bkinni "The greatest hoax on earth?" svarar Jonathan Sarfati eim rkum sem koma fram bk Dawkins.

g er kominn gtlega lei me bk Dawkins og er nbinn a f hendurnar nokkur eintk af "The greatest hoax on earth?". J, nokkur v a mig langai a gefa eintk til einstaklinga sem eru forvitnir um run skpun umruna.

g hef aeins sj eintk svo etta verur sirka, fyrstur kemur, fyrstur fr. eir sem hafa huga geta sent mr pst

ar arf a koma fram, nafn og heimilisfang svo g get sent bkina til vikomandi.

Hrna eru nokkur dmi um hva flk er a segja um bkina:

I lost my Evolution Faith when I was being taught by London Universitys Professor J.Z. Young, FRS, arguably the greatest Darwinian evolutionist of the 20th Century. I have since been waiting for a 21st Century genius to prove that the Darwinian Evolution Emperor has no clothes. Jonathan Sarfati is that genius as you can see from this his latest masterpiece. With an astonishing array of scientific references, Sarfati has demonstrated that he is far and away the better debater than Richard Dawkins, one of those I described elsewhere as whistling in the dark to keep their scientific courage up. Read it, and re-read it!
Dr Felix Konotey-Ahulu (a world authority on sickle cell anemia) is Kwegyir Aggrey Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, and Former Consultant Physician Genetic Counsellor, Cromwell Hospital, London.

Any rational debate requires the honest presentation of both sides. But there exists a powerful, self-styled intellectual elite which would deny us the right to consider all the evidence. They would have a debate wherein only one side was heard, while the other side was either ignored or grossly misrepresented. It is crucial that all honest truth-seekers who read Dawkins'book The Greatest Show on Earth also read Jonathan Sarfati's book The Greatest Hoax on Earth?.
John Sanford Ph.D., Courtesy Associate Professor, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University. (John is a pioneer of genetic engineering and inventor of the gene gun)

I have been singularly blessed by Jonathans writing. His Refuting Evolution and By Design rank up there with the best of the creationist literature. This work, however, surely tops them all. Sarfatis crisp, incisive no-holds-barred approach is a fearsome weapon, and Dawkins may rue the day he decided to challenge Christianity to a duel on origins. The Greatest Hoax on Earth? is an excellent rebuttal to the best evolution has to offer. The reader should walk away with the understanding that evolutionary theory is a house of cards and its chief spokesmen are promoting poor, illogical, and false arguments against the only viable alternative: biblical creation.
Robert Carter, Ph.D. in Marine Biology and Genetics (University of Miami)

Er Biblan snn? ( MIQ )

miq_graphic.jpgMyndband fr MIQ ( Most important questions ) sem fjallar um spurninguna "Er Biblan snn?", sj: Is the Bible true

Hpurinn sem arna er veri a reyna a tala til eru unglingar og kannski aalega unglingar sem tilheyra Avent kirkjunni en samt frlegt fyrir alla sem hafa huga essum spurningum.

Ef a Biblan styddi hugmyndina um helvti

gates_of_hell.jpgMig langar a fara yfir nokkur vers Biblunni og hvernig au ttu a vera ef a hugmyndin um helvti, a krleiksrkur Gu velji a kvelja skpun sna miljnir ra. Svo a fari ekki fram hj neinum, essi vers eru ekki svona Biblunni en ttu a vera a ef essi hugmynd vri kennd af Biblunni.

1. Msebk 2 - Gen 2:16
Og Drottinn Gu bau manninum og sagi: "Af llum trjm aldingarinum mttu eta eftir vild, en 2:17 en af skilningstrnu gs og ills mtt ekki eta, v a ef etur af v mun g kvelja ig og miljnir afkomenda inna eldi a eilfu.
1. Msebk 3:19
sveita andlitis ns skalt neyta braus ns, anga til fer til helvtis... v a mold ert og annig mun g kvelja ig eldi a eilfu
Ezekel 18:20
S maur, sem syndgar, Gu mun kveikja honum og kvelja hann a eilfu.
Predikarinn 9:5
v a eir sem lifa, vita a eir eiga a deyja, og hinir dauu vita enn betur, eir eru helvti og hljta refsingu nna og dmsdegi og san um alla eilf. J, og minning eirra gleymist.
Slmarnir 115:17
Andair menn lofa Drottin, .e.a.s. eir sem fru fam Abrahams; hinir kvarta og keina enda er veri a kvelja um aldur og fi; meira a segja eir sem hnignir eru dauagn,
Slmarnir 37:20
En a verur kveikt hinum gulegu og eir kvaldir a eilfu, og vinir Drottins eru sem skraut vallarins: eir kveljast og hverfa aldrei.
Slmarnir 145:20
Drottinn varveitir alla er elska hann, en kvelur a eilfu alla ninga.
Jhannes 3:16
v svo elskai Gu heiminn, a hann gaf son sinn eingetinn, til ess a hver sem hann trir veri ekki kvaldur eldi a eilfu, heldur hafi eilft lf... ekki eldi auvita og ekki kvalinn eins og hinir vera sem last eilft lf lka en...
Jhannesar guspjall 12:48
S sem hafnar mr og tekur ekki vi orum mnum, hefur sinn dmara: Ori, sem g hef tala, verur dmari hans efsta degi. A vsu er veri a kvelja alla sem hafa di syndum snum Sheol en a verur enn verra egar bi er a reisa upp fr dauum og dma .
Jakobsbrf 1:15
egar girndin san er orin ungu, elur hn synd, og egar syndin er orin fullrosku, fir hn eilfar kvalir eldi.
Hebreabrfi 2:14
ar sem n brnin eru af holdi og bli, hefur hann og sjlfur fengi hlutdeild mannlegu eli sama htt, til ess a hann me daua snum gti a engu gjrt ann, sem hefur mtt dauans, a er a segja djfulinn,
1. Tmteusarbrf 6:14
Gt boorsins ltalaust, afinnanlega allt til endurkomu Drottins vors Jes Krists, 15 sem hinn blessai og eini alvaldur mun snum tma birtast lta, konungur konunganna og Drottinn drottnanna.
16 Hann einn hefur dauleika, samt llum mnnum og llum syndurum v a syndarar hafa eilfa, daulega sl.
Opinberunarbkin 21:4
Og hann mun erra hvert tr af augum eirra. Og dauinn mun ekki framar til vera, syndarar aftur mti harma og kveina enda munu eir kvaldir vera a eilfu. Ef hlst a a voru jningar hinu fyrra lfi, bddu bara.

etta er bara brot af v sem g gti tnt til. Vri Biblan ekki upprvandi og skemmtileg lesning ef hn vri svona? Kmi a ekki sknandi fram hve miki Gu elskar brnin sem Hann skapai?

Fyrir sem vilja vita hva Biblan raunverulega kennir um helvti er hrna sa sem g mli me, sj:

a er aeins ein vera sem gti innihaldi svo mikla illsku a vera til a kvelja flk miljnir ra og a er djfulinn. g hreinlega get ekki s betur en eir sem tilbija veru sem eir tra a muni kvelja flk a eilfu, eru rauninni a tilbija djfulinn.

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